I’ve put this Git Cheatsheet together to help me with my ageing memory. Git is a software tool designed to keep track of changes to files using a process known as version control. Version control tools such as Git allow you to work on files whether they be documents, computer source code or web pages while keeping a history of changes as you work. It allows you to work collaboratively with teams on sets of files without stepping on one anothers feet. Git achieves this through the uds of branching and merging. Branching simply means making a copy of the main set of files and working and making changes to the copy instead of risking messing up the main version. When you’re happy that the branched version is working, you can then merge the changes back to the main version.
Git has loads of commands, mainly entered via the windows command line or bash if you’re using Linux. A Git cheatsheet therefore will help me, and you to quickly find those commands I’ve found most useful.
Always start from the branch you wish to Merge into
Merge an Entire Branch with Another Branch
>git merge <source branch name>
Merge a Single File into the Target Branch
>git checkout <source branch name> <source file directory>/ <source file name>
Merge Multiple Files into the Target Branch
>git checkout <source branch name> <source file directory 1> <source file name 1> <source file directory 1> <source file name 2> <source file directory 2> <source file name 3>
Merge Multiple Files into the Target Branch Using Wildcard
>git checkout <source branch name> <source file directory> <part of source file name preceded or followed by *>
e.g. The following command would merge the files large_layout2.xml, small_layout5.xml and default_layout12.xml
>git checkout updated_version src/code/*layout*.xml
Syncing a fork
Sync a fork of a repository to keep it up-to-date with the upstream repository.
Open TerminalTerminalGit Bash.
List the current configured remote repository for your fork.
git remote -v origin https://github.com/YOUR_USERNAME/YOUR_FORK.git (fetch) origin https://github.com/YOUR_USERNAME/YOUR_FORK.git (push)
Specify a new remote upstream repository that will be synced with the fork.
git remote add upstream https://github.com/ORIGINAL_OWNER/ORIGINAL_REPOSITORY.git
Verify the new upstream repository you’ve specified for your fork.
git remote -v origin https://github.com/YOUR_USERNAME/YOUR_FORK.git (fetch) origin https://github.com/YOUR_USERNAME/YOUR_FORK.git (push) upstream https://github.com/ORIGINAL_OWNER/ORIGINAL_REPOSITORY.git (fetch) upstream https://github.com/ORIGINAL_OWNER/ORIGINAL_REPOSITORY.git (push)
Fetch the branches and their respective commits from the upstream repository. Commits to
masterwill be stored in a local branch,
git fetch upstream remote: Counting objects: 75, done. remote: Compressing objects: 100% (53/53), done. remote: Total 62 (delta 27), reused 44 (delta 9) Unpacking objects: 100% (62/62), done. From https://github.com/ORIGINAL_OWNER/ORIGINAL_REPOSITORY * [new branch] master -> upstream/master
Check out your fork’s local
git checkout master Switched to branch 'master'
Merge the changes from
upstream/masterinto your local
masterbranch. This brings your fork’s
masterbranch into sync with the upstream repository, without losing your local changes.
git merge upstream/master Updating a422352..5fdff0f Fast-forward README | 9 ------- README.md | 7 ++++++ 2 files changed, 7 insertions(+), 9 deletions(-) delete mode 100644 README create mode 100644 README.md
If your local branch didn’t have any unique commits, Git will instead perform a “fast-forward”:
git merge upstream/master Updating 34e91da..16c56ad Fast-forward README.md | 5 +++-- 1 file changed, 3 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)